Report and Abstract for Cognitive Radio Networks Service

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Cognitive radio (CR) is a form of wireless communication in which a transceiver can intelligently detect which communication channels are in use and which are not, and instantly move into vacant channels while avoiding occupied ones. This optimizes the use of available radio-frequency (RF) Report and Abstract for Cognitive Radio Networks Servicespectrum while minimizing interference to other users.

In its most basic form, CR is a hybrid technology involving software defined radio (SDR) as applied to spread spectrum communications. Possible functions of cognitive radio include the ability of a transceiver to determine its geographic location, identify and authorize its user, encrypt or decrypt signals, sense neighboring wireless devices in operation, and adjust output power and modulation characteristics.

Aims and Objectives:

Report and Abstract for Cognitive Radio Networks Service
Report and Abstract for Cognitive Radio Networks Service

1. Introduction:

An introduction to the concept of cognitive radio networks (CRN), the basic terminologies that are used in the system, the network dependencies and its development in purview of the current technology, keeping in view the spread spectrum techniques and the unutilised radio spaces also known as the white spaces.


Report and Abstract for Cognitive Radio Networks Service

2. Need and necessity of CRN:

Today’s wireless networks are characterized by a fixed spectrum assignment policy. However, a large portion of the assigned spectrum is used sporadically and geographical variations in the utilization of assigned spectrum ranges from 15% to 85% with a high variance in time. The limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage necessitate a new communication paradigm to exploit the existing wireless spectrum CRN-SEMINAR SYNOPSIS opportunistically. This new networking paradigm is referred to as NeXt Generation (xG) Networks as well as Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) and cognitive radio networks.


The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ruled in November 2008 that unused

portions of the RF spectrum (known as white spaces) be made available for public use.

White space devices must include technologies to prevent interference, such as spectrum sensing and geolocation capabilities.


3. Challenges in CRN:

3.1 “best available channel”: The cognitive radio technology will enable the users to

3.1.1 Spectrum Sensing: Determine which portions of the spectrum is available and

detect the presence of licensed users when a user operates in a licensed band

3.1.2 Spectrum Management: Select the best available channel

3.1.3 Spectrum Sharing: Coordinate access to this channel with other users

3.1.4 Spectrum Mobility: Vacate the channel when a licensed user is detected

3.2 To make network protocols adaptive:

Once a cognitive radio supports the capability to select the best available channel, the

next challenge is to make the network protocols adaptive to the available spectrum.

Hence, new functionalities are required in an xG network to support this adaptivity.


4. Characteristics of Cognitive radios:

• Cognitive capability: Cognitive capability refers to the ability of the radio technology to

capture or sense the information from its radio environment.

• Reconfigurability: The cognitive capability provides spectrum awareness whereas

reconfigurability enables the radio to be dynamically programmed according to the radio



5. Architecture of Cognitive Radio Networks

5.1 Cognitive Radio Ad hoc networks (CRAHNs)

5.2 Mesh architecture

5.3 Non intrusive cognitive radio networks

5.4 Upper layers and cross layers


6. Cognitive Radio Networks and Distributed Radio Resource Management and Allocation


7. Security and reliability in cognitive radio networks


8. Applications and Conclusions

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